Mom tongue or first language is possibly the most favored thing for any particular person. The concern of language has resulted into many conflicts and discontentment. The key example of such discontentment is the Language Motion of 1952 in Bangladesh. On the other hand we can not dwell in isolation. We have to be in speak to with the speakers of other languages. Bangladesh is considered to be a monolingual country in which a lot more than ninety eight% of the population is speakers of Bangla language. Even so, there are more than 10 languages in this sort of a tiny nation like Bangladesh. Monipuri, Urdu, Chakma, Santali, Garo, Rakhain, Tipra- are just some of the other languages current in Bangladesh.
The intriguing issue is that Urdu is a Indo-European language but created in Arabic script, Santali belongs to the Mono-Khemar language family although Chakma belongs to the Chinese-Barmese language group. So, although Bangladesh is often portrayed as a country of linguistic unity primarily based on Bangla language in reality it has notable linguistic range. To connect with the speakers of other languages we either want to know their language or communicate in a Lingua-Franca that is comprehensible to the two of us.
Nowadays, the globe has turn out to be a worldwide village. Thanks to the improvement of communication method and technology. Each nation is dependent on other people for trade and commerce, training, politics and so on. As a result, we have to continuously talk with other international locations and speakers of other languages. Third world countries like Bangladesh have to rely on overseas assist since they are not self-enough. As a result, several foreigners occur to Bangladesh. A third factor is the element of faith. The sacred language of the Muslims is Arabic, Sanskrit for Hindus, Pali for the Buddhists and Latin for the Christians.
All these elements remind us the requirement for studying other language(s) in addition to our mother tongue. In accordance to this actuality many nations of the globe have adopted a European language as second language which is typically used in schooling, law court docket, economic actions and authorities works. These languages have most of the time formal standing in the structure of individuals international locations. Several of the cases the international locations have adopted the language of their past colonial rulers as the 2nd language. Often these languages are also named formal language. In numerous African nations around the world we can see this picture. On the other hand, some European languages have turn out to be extremely crucial in the entire world for literary and financial reasons. For case in point, German and French are regarded as to be crucial languages of the world simply because each of them have influential literature and economic aspects linked with them.
For instance, many men and women in our country are intrigued to find out French since it may possibly aid them to get UN jobs and positions in Multinational businesses. Yet another desirable enthusiasm for understanding French in Bangladesh is that it might help us to immigrate to Canada as talent in French language provides a individual some further details in the position program of Canadian immigration.
The title of my study is “Position of English in Bangladesh: Second language or foreign language?” I have chosen this subject matter due to the fact from sociolinguistic level of check out the status of English is a very exciting 1. On the 1 hand English language is dominantly current in each side of our national life even though on the other hand in our constitution it is obviously declared that the language of the nation is Bangla. In truth, absolutely nothing is mentioned about the status of English language in our constitution. On one hand, financial pursuits in the non-public businesses are carried out in English whilst there is a govt law (Bangla procholon ain1987) that authorities workplaces need to use Bangla in their official performs. So from the government stage of check out Bangla is the national- official language of Bangladesh and English is the most critical international language. But in reality English is the next language of the region and in several spots English is far more essential than Bangla in Bangladesh.
A 2nd language is any language other than the first, or native, language learned it is usually utilized due to the fact of geographical or social motives. The time period is to be distinguished from overseas language linguist Eric Lenneberg employs 2nd language in his essential period of time hypothesis to indicate a language consciously learned or used by its speaker after puberty. In most circumstances, people by no means accomplish the exact same amount of fluency and comprehension in their 2nd languages as in their very first language.
Traditionally in Europe, the most widely utilised 2nd language (or lingua franca) was Latin. It was used by the Church by the Law (as it nevertheless is today) in Drugs (starting a lot afterwards) Horticulture and biological classification of crops, animals, fruits, nuts, and many others.
Latin was employed so considerably across Europe that it was named the vulgar (or frequent tongue) this is why the Latin model of the Bible is named the Vulgate.
Presently, English is deemed the world’s most prevalent second language it is utilised in places as varied as the internet, tv and radio, and international aviation.
The achievement of English throughout the planet stems from two significant leads to: the far achieving impact of the British Empire, and the 20th century (and continuing) dominance of the United States in the fields of company and enjoyment.
French was for a time the lingua franca (the origin of expression) in Europe. In background, each England and France have been ruled by a single crown – the language employed by the royal courtroom was French (English was regarded “the peasant’s language”). Afterwards, as was the situation with English, the French empire unfold its language by way of colonization. French proceeds to be a single of the world’s most broadly spoken languages. (Source: Wikipedia)
If we look at the definition of next language then we can effortlessly say that English is the second language of Bangladesh. It is broadly employed in numerous parts of our national existence. Several men and women observe English tv channels and also use World wide web. The learners have to study it for twelve years and individuals who want to be a part of civil support by attending BCS examination also have to sit for English examination. The only thing that is missing from the earlier mentioned definition is the truth that except for official situations no one speaks in English in Bangladesh. It is not the language used in property amongst family users and between buddies in casual discussion.
A overseas language is a language not spoken by the indigenous people of a particular area: for example, English is a foreign language in Japan. It is also a language not spoken in the native country of the particular person referred to, i.e. an English speaker living in Japan can say that Japanese is a international language to him or her.
Some youngsters discover a lot more than one particular language from birth or from a really youthful age: they are bilingual. These kids can be said to have two mother tongues: neither language is foreign to that youngster, even if one language is a overseas language for the huge greater part of individuals in the child’s birth place. For example, a youngster learning English from her English mother in Japan can communicate equally English and Japanese, but neither is a international language to her. (Source- Wikipedia)
From the previously mentioned definition, it is noticed that international language refers to a language that is not indigenous to a particular person. From this position of see English can be regarded as as a foreign language in Bangladesh considering that it is not indigenous in our place. Rarely any Bangladeshi man or woman speaks in English although many of them use it in education and company.
An official language is some thing that is given a distinctive status in the nations, states, and other territories. It is generally the language utilized in a nation’s legislative bodies, though the law in numerous nations needs that govt documents be developed in other languages as nicely.
Formally regarded minority languages are frequently mistaken for official languages. However, a language officially acknowledged by a point out, taught in faculties, and utilized in official conversation is not essentially an official language. For example, Ladin and Sardinian in Italy and Mirandese in Portugal are only formally recognized minority languages, not official languages in the strict perception.
Half of the countries in the world have official languages. Some have only a single official language, this kind of as Albania, France, or Lithuania, despite the fact that in all these nations there are other indigenous languages spoken as properly. Some have more than one particular formal language, such as Afghanistan, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Canada, Eritrea, Finland, India, Paraguay, South Africa, and Switzerland.
In some countries, this sort of as Iraq, Italy, Russia and Spain, there is an formal language for the country, but other languages are co-formal in some critical locations. Some nations, this sort of as Australia, Sweden, Tuvalu, and the United States have no official languages.
The official languages of some previous colonies, generally French or English, are not the nationwide languages or the most commonly spoken language.
In distinction, as a consequence of nationalism, Irish is the “nationwide language” of the Republic of Eire and its 1st official language, even though it is spoken by only a tiny fraction of its men and women. English, which is spoken by the vast majority, is described only as the second official language (Structure of Eire, Report eight).
In some nations, the problem of which language is to be employed in what context is a major political concern.(Source-Wikipedia)
From the previously mentioned definition, it is witnessed that the idea of official language is complicated. In accordance to our constitution English can not be termed as the formal language of Bangladesh considering that it has no status in our structure. The only language that is described in our structure is Bangla. But English is permitted in our parliament and numerous government functions. For example, when there is a authorities celebration in which some foreigners show up at then in numerous situations the speakers use English language. Numerous critical govt files are written the two in Bangla and English. The parliament proceedings are retained into these two languages. When a government physique organizes a reasonable then frequently the memento is released in English.
About the language of the country the Bangladeshi constitution plainly states:
“The condition language.
The condition language of the Republic is [Bangla].”
In the structure practically nothing is talked about about the position of English. English is not pointed out as a next language or official language. So if we consider the position of English in our structure then we can’t claim that English is a Next language or Formal Language in Bangladesh.
English in Legislation court docket in Bangladesh:
Right after Independence the authorities took the initiative to put into action Bangla language in law courtroom. As a consequence, now the reduced courts carry out their routines in Bangla but English is however very influential in High Court docket and Supreme Court. If a law firm needs to practice in Supreme court then he have to have a good command more than English language. Numerous of the judges nevertheless give their verdicts in English language. It appears that this craze of making use of English will stay for the forcible future.
English in Education and learning sector in Bangladesh:
Official and institutionalized schooling technique commenced in Bangladesh for the duration of the British rule. At that time Bangladesh was element of British India. There was a debate about the medium of education. Raja Rammohan Roy argued that the medium need to be English rather than Sanskrit or Persian. During the British time period the medium of education was mainly in English. Calcutta University took an initiative in 1935 to introduce Bangla as a medium of schooling along with English. In Bangladesh the use of Bangla in university amount commenced in the 1960s. Now college students can answer in the examinations in Bangla or English. In the university amount and university degree right after 1971 the federal government tried to patronize Bangla and apply it by replacing English in the schooling sector but this did not came into reality since of some fundamental difficulties. The initial issue is that there have been not enough books of any area in Bangla language. This dilemma is far more acute in science and technology. For example, there are almost no textbooks in Bangla about pc engineering that can be utilized as a reference book in the College degree.
Actually there are a few varieties of education systems in our place- Bangla medium, English medium, and Madrasa technique. Bangla medium colleges can be divided into two sections- government schools, and kindergarten colleges. In the kindergarten faculties far more emphasis is provided on English language than government schools. Some of the popular kindergarten schools of Dhaka are Vikarounnesa, Holycross, Willes Little Flower, and so on. Even though these colleges belong to Bangla medium the learners have to study three-four English guides like: Radiant Way, Energetic English, Desk Operate, Basic English, Brighter Grammar, and so on. On the other hand in the govt colleges there is mostly one particular English ebook (English for Right now) which is released by Bangladesh Text Book Board. The English medium colleges do not stick to Bangladeshi training method and are beneath the supervision of British Council. The medium of instruction in these faculties is English and a lot of of the students of English medium are even quite weak in Bangla language. There are two varieties of Madrassas – Dakhil and Kawmi. The Kawmi Madrassas are not identified by the govt and do not get any assistance from the authorities. In this Madrassas emphasis is offered on finding out Arabic, Persian, and Urdu even though Bangla and English are neglected. On the other hand in Dakhil Madrassas emphasis is mainly offered on Arabic and Bangla and English are not so significantly neglected.
So we can clearly see that the big difference in training system in Bangladesh is only primarily based on the distinction in the medium of education. Despite the fact that Bangla is the National-Formal language of Bangladesh it is the English medium education and learning institutes who get far more money. The rise of private universities has only elevated the position and significance of English language in Bangladesh. There are now far more than fifty non-public Universities in Bangladesh and the medium of education in all of them is English. These universities charge 2 lakh to five lakh taka for Bachelor course. If the medium of training was in Bangla then hardly any student or mothers and fathers would get fascinated to shell out these kinds of massive funds for the schooling in private universities.
From the over dialogue it is obvious that in our basic training technique English has equal if not a lot more value than Bangla. In our education and learning program English is truly the Next language as all the learners have to study it as a obligatory matter for twelve years.
English and Administration:
In the course of the language motion the individuals of Bangladesh had been scared that if Urdu was established as the Condition Language of Pakistan then all the govt actions will be carried out in Urdu and our people will experience. As a consequence of the language motion, the Pakistani Regime held on carrying out government actions in English language. After Bangladesh turned unbiased the government of Awami League made the decision to exchange English with Bangla in administrative performs but soon after the dying of Sheikh Mujib this process came to a halt and English continued to continue being as the dominant language. It was for the duration of the rule of Ershad Bangla Procholon Aeen of 1987 was designed and implemented. From that time English began to shed its significance in administration. However, it has to be described that all the worldwide interaction of Bangladesh government is carried out through English.
English in Economic routines:
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The economic climate of Bangladesh is dependent on foreign aids and export of some common objects like all set manufactured clothes, jute, tea, fish and so forth and also we import a great deal of issues. Bangladesh is not self ample economically. Buying and selling is a lot more well-liked than creation. Trading needs continual interaction with international organizations. A lot of of the organizations who are involved in investing have to use English in working with foreigners. Suppose, a business is doing trading with China which is not an English talking nation. Then the company has to speak to the Chinese company in English. If we seem at the advertisements of the private sector employment then we can easily observe that most of the task commercials are posted in English. Even most of the personal sector task adverts that are posted in Bengali newspapers are posted in English. Virtually all the private positions condition that the applicants must have great proficiency in English language. Nearly all the community constrained organizations publish their annual studies in English. Some of these businesses produce a Bangla edition of their annual report but the emphasis is always on English. So it is distinct that English is the dominant language in our financial activities.
Comparison of English with Arabic, Sanskrit, and Pali in Bangladesh:
Arabic, Sanskrit and Pali are the spiritual languages of Muslims, Hindus and Buddhists respectively. Even the uneducated individuals consider to understand these languages as they are considered to be holy. If we compare the learning of English with these languages then we can see that English is offered far more value. For case in point, the tuition fee of a English coaching center is much increased than that of an Arabic coaching centre. English personal tutors get 4-5 instances far more funds than Arabic personal tutors (Huzur). So despite the fact that Arabic has spiritual sentiment hooked up to it English is regarded as to be more critical as it has economic advantage.
Comparison of English foreign languages like French, German, and Farsi:
French and German have become very popular for financial factors in our country. Studying these languages support us to enhance our likelihood to get a UN task. Learning French is also helpful for getting immigration to Canada. Also there are excellent facilities to discover these languages in Dhaka College, Alliance Francaise, and Goethe Institute. Just lately, the English Institute of North South College has released French course. On the other hand for the duration of the Muslim reign Farsi was the language of the Royal administration and regulation courtroom in Bangladesh. At current, a pupil can go to Farsi course for one particular semester by just paying tk. 250 in Iran Cultural Heart but there are not many pupils who are fascinated to discover Farsi, French, and German. On the other hand, hundreds of students each and every 12 months show up for TOEFL and IELTS examinations in English language.
From the over image it is distinct that the standing of English is considerably higher than international languages like German, French, and Farsi. We can not deny the reality that if a particular person is very good at English then he can generate funds in any component of Bangladesh but if a particular person is great at French, German, or Farsi he has rarely any scope to receive income by employing his expertise in these languages.
From the dialogue so much there is no doubt that English is the 2nd language of Bangladesh but this reality is not mirrored in our structure. Officially Bangladesh is not recognized as an ESL region to the outdoors globe. So Bangladesh must be declared as an ESL country by the government without any delay. We understand English not because we like Shakespeare or Dickens. We discover English from out of each working day requirement. If Bangladesh is declared as an ESL country and English language is offered a clear position in the structure then it will not only replicate the actuality but also it will aid us internationally. Now Bangladesh is desperately striving to appeal to foreign traders. Just before any organization comes to Bangladesh for discovering the investment decision chances one of the crucial places they would seem for is the availability of pool of English graduates and they also anticipate that the normal personnel will have simple comprehending of English language. If we grow to be an ESL country then these overseas companies although browsing about Bangladesh will get assured about the sturdy existence of English language in this country.
The very same picture is there about instructional sector. A lot of Bangladeshi college students want to go to developed nations like United states, United kingdom , Canada, and Australia for higher schooling. If Bangladesh is declared as an ESL place then these learners will be benefited since then the Universities of individuals nations around the world will get the concept that English has particular importance in Bangladesh.
So I recommend to the authorities of Bangladesh that English must be declared as the next language of the country by amending the structure.
Bangladesh is the only nation in the planet whose individuals sacrificed their lives for the language. Now the historical language motion of 1952 is acknowledged internationally as the International Mom Language Working day. It is correct that our individuals are emotional about their language, Bangla. Nonetheless, it is similarly real that now our individuals have turn into desperate about getting skilled in English language. As a end result, there are more than fifty personal universities now in Bangladesh. If North South Provided BBA and Laptop Science classes in Bangla medium then they would not get even ten% of the quantity of college students they have now. It is now very good time that we end the wonderful contradiction about the language problem and declare Bangladesh as an ESL place for our own reward.